Modern education is not developing as fast as electronic technology, so many have to go to lessons with heavy portfolios. But there is a way out, for example, if the schedule includes algebra, then you can simply download the pdf file of this textbook to your smartphone or tablet, and use the usual textbook only at home.

Algebra is not a separate science, but a part of mathematics. This is more advanced arithmetic. She studies the actions performed with values, these are, first of all, transformations of numbers and variables and calculation. In other words, algebra is the part of mathematics that deals with addition and multiplication.

## A brief excursion into the history of appearance

The first mentions of algebra go back to ancient times. The simplest operations with natural numbers are mentioned in ancient Egyptian texts. Back in the 17th century BC, Egyptian scribes and the inhabitants of Babylon, trained by science, were able to solve equations, however, the methods of solution were different from modern ones. The so-called rule of false position was used, and then they did not know negative numbers at all.

A real breakthrough in the history of this branch of mathematics occurred not so long ago – in the 16th century. The French scientist François Viet was the first to use letter symbolism to denote unknown and constant quantities. Later this system was improved by Descartes.

### Classification and functions of algebra

Algebra is conventionally divided into five categories:

- Elementary – taught in schools;
- Modern;
- Universal;
- Linear;
- Algebraic combinatorics, or abstract algebra.

**Problems solved by algebra:**

- Calculation of values of one or another quantity;
- Solving equations and finding the arguments for which equality is achieved;
- Conversion of integers and their fractions;
- Construction of graphs and diagrams;
- Solution of inequalities;
- Working with derivatives and integrals.

In algebra, people with an analytical mind are usually strong. This science contributes to the training of memory and logical thinking.

Algebra is a compulsory subject for admission to technical and economic universities.

Without algebra, no exact science can exist: physics, chemistry, drawing, information technology and economic disciplines.